Info

earth

Earth
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000[n 1]
Aphelion
152,100,000 km (94,500,000 mi)
(1.01673 AU) [n 2]
Perihelion
147,095,000 km (91,401,000 mi)
(0.9832687 AU) [n 2]
Semi-major axis
149,598,023 km (92,955,902 mi)
(1.000001018 AU) [1]
Eccentricity 0.0167086[1]
Orbital period
365.256363004 d[2]
(1.00001742096 yr)
Average orbital speed
29.78 km/s (18.50 mi/s)[3]
(107,200 km/h (66,600 mph))
Mean anomaly
358.617°
Inclination
  • 7.155° to the Sun's equator;
  • 1.57869°[4] to invariable plane;
  • 0.00005° to J2000 ecliptic
Longitude of ascending node
−11.26064°[3] to J2000 ecliptic
Argument of perihelion
114.20783°[3]
Satellites
  • 1 natural satellite: the Moon
  • 5 quasi-satellites
  • >1,400 operational artificial satellites[5]
  • >16,000 space debris [n 3]
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
6,371.0 km (3,958.8 mi)[6]
Equatorial radius
6,378.1 km (3,963.2 mi)[7][8]
Polar radius
6,356.8 km (3,949.9 mi)[9]
Flattening 0.0033528[10]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
Circumference
  • 40,075.017 km (24,901.461 mi) (equatorial) [8]
  • 40,007.86 km (24,859.73 mi) (meridional) [11][12]
Surface area
  • 510,072,000 km2 (196,940,000 sq mi)[13][14][n 4]
  •  148,940,000 km2 (57,510,000 sq mi) (29.2%) land
  •  361,132,000 km2 (139,434,000 sq mi) (70.8%) water
Volume 1.08321×1012 km3 (2.59876×1011 cu mi)[3]
Mass 5.97237×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[15]
(3.0×10−6 M)
Mean density
5.514 g/cm3 (0.1992 lb/cu in)[3]
Surface gravity
9.807 m/s2 (32.18 ft/s2)[16]
(g)
Moment of inertia factor
0.3307[17]
Escape velocity
11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s)[3]
Sidereal rotation period
0.99726968 d[18]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
1,674.4 km/h (1,040.4 mph)[19]
Axial tilt
23.4392811°[2]
Albedo
  • 0.367 geometric[3]
  • 0.306 Bond[3]
Surface temp.minmeanmax
Kelvin 184 K[20] 288 K[21] 330 K[22]
Celsius −89.2 °C 15 °C 56.7 °C
Fahrenheit −128.5 °F 59 °F 134 °F
Atmosphere
Surface pressure
101.325 kPa (at MSL)
Composition by volume
  • 78.08% nitrogen (N2)[3] (dry air)
  • 20.95% oxygen (O2)
  • 0.930% argon
  • 0.0402% carbon dioxide[23]
  • ~ 1% water vapor (climate-variable)