Info

venus

Venus 
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈvnəs/
Adjectives Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Orbital characteristics[3][5]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion
  • 0.728213 AU
  • 108,939,000 km
Perihelion
  • 0.718440 AU
  • 107,477,000 km
Semi-major axis
  • 0.723332 AU
  • 108,208,000 km
Eccentricity 0.006772[2]
Orbital period
  • 224.701 d[3]
  • 0.615198 yr
  • 1.92 Venus solar day
Synodic period
583.92 days[3]
Average orbital speed
35.02 km/s
Mean anomaly
50.115°
Inclination
  • 3.39458° to ecliptic
  • 3.86° to Sun's equator
  • 2.19° to invariable plane[4]
Longitude of ascending node
76.680°[2]
Argument of perihelion
54.884°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
  • 6,051.8±1.0 km[6]
  • 0.9499 Earths
Flattening 0[6]
Surface area
  • 4.6023×108 km2
  • 0.902 Earths
Volume
  • 9.2843×1011 km3
  • 0.866 Earths
Mass
  • 4.8675×1024 kg[7]
  • 0.815 Earths
Mean density
5.243 g/cm3
Surface gravity
  • 8.87 m/s2
  • 0.904 g
Escape velocity
10.36 km/s (6.44 mi/s)[8]
Sidereal rotation period
−243.025 d (retrograde)[3]
Equatorial rotation velocity
6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Axial tilt
2.64° (for retrograde rotation)
177.36° (to orbit)[3][note 1]
North pole right ascension
  • 18h 11m 2s
  • 272.76°[9]
North pole declination
67.16°
Albedo
  • 0.67 (geometric)[10]
  • 0.90 (Bond)[10]
Surface temp.minmeanmax
Kelvin   737 K[3]  
Celsius   462 °C  
Apparent magnitude
  • brightest −4.9[11][12] (crescent)
  • −3.8[13] (full)
Angular diameter
9.7″ to 66.0″[3]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure
92 bar (9.2 MPa)
Composition by volume
  • 96.5% carbon dioxide
  • 3.5% nitrogen
  • 0.015% sulfur dioxide
  • 0.007% argon
  • 0.002% water vapour
  • 0.0017% carbon monoxide
  • 0.0012% helium
  • 0.0007% neon
  • trace carbonyl sulfide
  • trace hydrogen chloride
  • trace hydrogen fluoride
  1. Jump up ^ Defining the rotation as retrograde, as done by NASA space missions and the USGS, puts Ishtar Terra in the northern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 2.64°. Following the right-hand rule for prograde rotation puts Ishtar Terra in the southern hemisphere and makes the axial tilt 177.36°.